The Rajasthan state is spread in an area of 343000 square kilometers which has been very distinctly divided by the presence of Aravali Range running from north-east direction to south west direction and cover distance of 688 kilometers from north-east to south-west falling within the state. It appears to be the backbone of the state. Because of this division the two regions created having very contrasting geographical topography of the land.
Towards north-west of Aravali range lies Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Barmer and Bikaner, where the topography is of arid plains witnessing the sand dunes mobility forming part of extensively spread Thar desert occupying nearly 196,150 sq km of space. The earth has higher compactness and there are very scantily found thorny shrubs and bushes.
The ground water level in the region is at very great depth, the situation has been prevailing for last many centuries. There is a narrative account written by Manucci, an Italian writer, who traveled in Rajasthan in the 17th Century. The writing account makes mentions of “The extremely deep wells in the region requiring the help of oxen for drawing water from these wells.
There is drum beating indication to the oxen, when the water filled pot arrives at the brim of the well and it requires to be emptied.” The old writings record also mention of “Even in spite of the land of the area, which has sand all over and no end is visible, forms arid desert, but strangely it is neither barren nor lacks inhabitance of people.
Ignoring the dry and hot environment lacking natural colors, the local people have filled their life by wearing brilliant colors in their dresses. The women wear more colorful dresses with a dark background, which is found every where in the region. What ever are the difficulties people remain zestful, which never diminishes in these hardship facing people”.
The writer mentions that “Driven by the harshly dry environment, the people have adopted semi-nomadic life style in their living. In the situations, when the survival is at stake, the population has tendency to migrate in areas along with their cattle to find grazing pastures for them, men, women and children turn to folk performers to entertain people, where ever they go as a means of earning income for living.
This wandering population under compulsion leave their homes, but do not forget desert living and associated marvelous history. Their customs and culture reflects every thing of Rajasthan desert life, even when they are no more living in Rajasthan.” With the return of favorable climatic conditions they return back with their belongings.
Now they start rearing camels, cows and buffaloes. If there is scantiness of vegetation there is abundance of minerals found in many areas of this wonderful region. On the other side of Aravali mountain range there is land having very dense vegetation, besides presence of granite rock mines located in scattered hills. There are locations having deposits of silver, zinc and lead.
There is presence of dense forests, greenery filled valleys having fertile land for agriculture. This area of Rajasthan receives water supply from many rivers flowing in the region of which Chambal is the major river traversing through Hadoti region and has great important role in fertility of the land.